Sifuba semoya

Tuberculosis
Kuhlelwa kanye nemitfombolwati yangaphandle
Chest X-ray of a person with advanced tuberculosis: Infection in both lungs is marked by white arrow-heads, and the formation of a cavity is marked by black arrows.
Chest X-ray of a person with advanced tuberculosis: Infection in both lungs is marked by white arrow-heads, and the formation of a cavity is marked by black arrows.

Sifuba semoya(i-TB) sifo lesitsatselanako lesivamise kubangelwa ngemabhakthiriya esifo semoya (ema-MTB)[1]. Sifuba semoya sivamise kuhlasela luemaphaphu, kantsi singatihlasela naletinye tincenye temtimba. tifo letinyenti letitsatselanako atinato timphawu, leto tivamise kwatiwa ngekutsi yi-latent tuberculosis. kusuleleka lokubalelwa ku10% kwe-latent kuyaye kuchubeke kube sifo lesiphilako, uma ngabe siyekeliwe sangalashwa, sivamise kubulala ihhafu yalabo labanaso. Timphawu letatiwako tesifo seTB lesiphilako kutsi ukhwehlele lokungapheli netikhwehlela letinengati, ifiva, kujuluka ebusuku, nekondza.[1] Loku bekuvamise kubitwa nge "kuphelelwa" lebekubangelwa ngulokondza.[2] Kusuleleka kwaletinye titfo temtimba kungabangela timphawu letinyenti.[3]

Sifuba semoya sisabalala emoyeni uma ngabe bantfu labane TB emaphashini abo bakhwehlela, bakhafuna, bakhuluma noma batsimula.[1][4] Bantfu labane TB leyisengakabonakali abasisabalalisi lesifo. Kusuleleka ngalesifo ngalokubonakalako kuvela kakhulu ebantfwini labane HIV/AIDS nalabo lababhemako.[1] Kutfolakala kwalesifo lesiphilako se-TB kucondziswe kuma X-rays esifuba, kanye nekuhlolwa ngemicroscop ne simo salokuliketjeti lokusemtimbeni. Kuhlolwa kwesifo se-TB lesengakabonakali kweyame kuluhlolo lwesikhumba lolubitwa nge tuberculin (i-TST) noma luhlolo lwetingati.[5]

Kuvikelwa kwe-TB kufaka ekhatsi kuhlolwa kwalabo labasengotini kakhulu, kutfolakala kwalesifo kusenesikhatsi nekulashwa kwalabagulako, nekuniketwa imitsi lehambisana ne bacillus Calmette-Guérin (i-BCG).[6][7][8] Labo labasengotini kakhulu kufaka ekhatsi labasemakhaya, emsebentini, nalabo latsintsana nabo emphakatsini labanesifo se-TB.[8] Kwelashwa kudzinga tindlela letiphindziwe tekusetjentiswa kwema antibiotics sikhatsi lesidze.[1] Kungasebenti kwema Antibiotic yinkinga lebhebhetsekako bese kuba nekukhula kwemazinga kwekungasebenti kwetidzakamiva tekulapha sifo sesifuba semoyalesingalapheki lula (i-MDR-TB) kanye nekungasebenti kwetidzakamiva ngalokuphakeme nakulashwa sifo semoya lesibitwa nge (XDR-TB).[1]

Kusukela nga 2018 ikota yinye yebantfu labaphilako kucatjangwa kwekutsi basuleleke nge-TB. Kwesuleleka lokusha kulinganiselwa ku 1% walabantfu labakhona njalo ngemnyaka.[9] Nga 2017, bekunebantfu labagulako labangetulu kwetigidzi leti-10 labanesifo se-TB lokwaholela kwekutsi kushone bantfu labalinganiselwa kusigidzi 1.6. Loku kwenta kwekutsi lesifo sibe yimbangela lehambembili yetifo letisulelanako letibulalanako. Kufa lokungetulu kwa 95% kwenteka emaveni lasatfutfuka, nangetulu kwa 50% e-India, China, Indonesia, Pakistan, nase Philippines. Inombolo yebantfu labasha labagulako njalo ngemnyaka yehlile kusukela nga 2000. Bantfu labalinganiselwa ku-80% emaveni lamanyenti ase Asia nase Afrika batfolakele banalesifo ngalesikhatsi 5-10% webantfu base United States batfolakele banalesifo ngalesikhatsi bahlolwa ngeluhlolo lwe-tuberculin.[10] Sifo sesifuba semoya besisolo sikhona ebantfwini kusukela etikhatsini takudzala.[11]

EmareferensiEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 "Tuberculosis Fact sheet N°104". WHO. October 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  2. The Chambers Dictionary. New Delhi: Allied Chambers India Ltd. 1998. p. 352. ISBN 978-81-86062-25-8.
  3. Dolin, [edited by] Gerald L. Mandell, John E. Bennett, Raphael (2010). Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases (7th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. pp. Chapter 250. ISBN 978-0-443-06839-3.
  4. "Basic TB Facts". CDC. March 13, 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  5. Konstantinos A (2010). "Testing for tuberculosis". Australian Prescriber. 33 (1): 12–18.
  6. Hawn, TR; Day, TA; Scriba, TJ; Hatherill, M; Hanekom, WA; Evans, TG; Churchyard, GJ; Kublin, JG; Bekker, LG; Self, SG (December 2014). "Tuberculosis vaccines and prevention of infection". Microbiology and molecular biology reviews : MMBR. 78 (4): 650–71. PMID 25428938.
  7. Harris, Randall E. (2013). Epidemiology of chronic disease : global perspectives. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 682. ISBN 9780763780470.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Organization, World Health (2008). Implementing the WHO Stop TB Strategy : a handbook for national TB control programmes. Geneva: World Health Organization. p. 179. ISBN 9789241546676.
  9. "Tuberculosis". World Health Organization. 2002.
  10. Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N, Mitchell RN (2007). Robbins Basic Pathology (8th ed.). Saunders Elsevier. pp. 516–522. ISBN 978-1-4160-2973-1.
  11. Lawn, SD; Zumla, AI (2 July 2011). "Tuberculosis". Lancet. 378 (9785): 57–72. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62173-3. PMID 21420161.