Simungwamungwane

Simungwamungwane, lesibuye satiwe njenge-morbilli, irubeola, nesimungwamungwane lesibovu, sifo lesisulelanako lesinemtselela lomkhulu lesibangelwa ligciwane lesimungwamungwane.[1][2] Tinkhomba tekucala netimphawu tivamise kufaka ekhatsi ifiva, levamise kuba ngetulu kwa-40 °C (104.0 °F), kukhwehlela, kwehla kwemafinyila nemehlo labovu.[1][3] Emalanga lamabili noma lamatsatfu ngemuva kwekucala kwaletimphawu kungavela emathuthumba lamancane lamhlophe ekhatsi emlonyeni, lekatiwa ngekutsi emathuthumba eKoplik. Kucubuka lokubovu, lokusicabati lokuvamise kucalisa ebusweni bese kusabalalela emtimbeni wonkhe ngalokujwayelekile avame kucala ngemuva kwemalanga lamatsatfu kuya kulasihlanu ngemuva kwekucala kwaletimphawu.[3] Timphawu tivamise kuvela etinsukwini leti-10–12 ngemuva kwekuvela emntfwini losulelekile nekumalanga ekugcina la-7–10.[4][5] Tinkhinga tivame kuvela kulokubalelwa ku-30% kantsi kungafaka ekhatsi umsheko, kungaboni, kuvuvuka kwengcondvo nenyumoniya kulokunye.[4][6] IRubella (lebitwa ngesimungwamungwane semjalimane) ne-roseola tifo letihlukene.[7]

Simungwamungwane sifo sematsambo sesiphephetsekako lesitsatselana kalula ngekukhwehlela nekutsimula kwalabo labanaso. Singahle sibuye sibhebhetsekiswe ngekutsintsana ngematse noma emafinyila.[4] Bantfu labayimfica kulabalishumi labangakagomi kantsi bahlala nemuntfu lonaso bangasuleleka. Bantfu bayatselelana ngetifo ngembi kwekutsi tibonakale emalanga lamane nangemuva kwemalanga lamane tibonakele futsi kucale lokucubuka.[6] Batfu bavamise kutfola lesifo kuphela lokungenani kanye.[4] Kuhlolwa kwaleligciwane lapho kusolelwa khona kubalulekile kwentela imitamo yekuvikela imphilo yebantfu.[6]

Lomjovo wesimungwamungwane uyasebenta ekuvikeleni lesifo. Kugoma sekubangele kwehla kwekushona kwebantfu nga 75% kusimungwamungwane emkhatsini wa-2000 kuya ku-2013 nebantfwana labalinganiselwa ku-85% mhlabawonkhe kwanyalo babe bagomile. Akukho kwelashwa lokucondzile lokukhona. Kunakekelwa ngekusekelwa, noma kunjalo, kungenta imiphumela lencono.[4] Loku kungafaka ekhatsi kuniketwa lokunatfwako kwekucedza kuphelelwa ngemanti emtimbeni (kujuluka kancane nelakumanti lokunasawoti), kudla lokunemphilo, nemitsi yekusita ngalefiva.[4][5] Ema-antibiotic angasetjentiswa uma ngabe kusuleleka ngaleligciwane lelifana nenyumoniya kwenteka. Titsako tetinsita tavithamini A nato tiyanconywa kulomhlaba wetfu losatfutfuka.[4]

Simungwamungwane singena bantfu labalinganiselwa kutigidzi letinge-20 ngemnyaka,[1] ikakhulukati etindzaweni letisatfutfuka tase Afrika nase Asia.[4] Kubangela imijovo lebaluleke kakhulu yekuvikela kufa lokubangelwa ngunoma ngutiphi tifo.[8] Kwabangela kufa lokulinganiselwa ku-96,000 ngemnyaka wa-2013 kwehla kwaba kusukela ku-545,000 kwekufa kwanga-1990.[9] Nga-1980, lesifo silinganiselwa kutsi besiyimbangela yekufa kwebantfu labatigidzi leti-2.6 ngemnyaka.[4] Ngembi kwekugoma e-United States emkhatsini webantfu labagulako labatigidzi letintsatfu kuya kuletine bekwenteka njalo ngemnyaka.[6] Labanyenti bal;abo labasulelekile nalabashonile bebangaphansi kweminyaka lesihlanu budzala.[4] Bungoti bekufa kulabo labasulelekile kuvamise kuba ngu-0.2%,[6] kodvwa kungaya kube ngu-10% kulabo lebebabulawa yindlala.[4] Akukholelwa kwekutsi kungene nakuletinye tilwane.[4]

EmareferensiEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Caserta, MT, ed. (September 2013). "Measles". Merck Manual Professional. Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  2. "Measles (Red Measles, Rubeola)". http://www.health.gov.sk.ca/. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Measles (Rubeola) Signs and Symptoms". cdc.gov. November 3, 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 "Measles Fact sheet No286". who.int. November 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Conn's Current Therapy 2015: Expert Consult - Online. Elsevier Health Sciences. 2014. p. 153. ISBN 9780323319560.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Atkinson, William (2011). Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (12 ed.). Public Health Foundation. pp. 301–323. ISBN 9780983263135. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
  7. Marx, John A. (2010). Rosen's emergency medicine : concepts and clinical practice (7th. ed.). Philadelphia: Mosby/Elsevier. p. 1541. ISBN 9780323054720.
  8. Kabra, SK; Lodhra, R (14 August 2013). "Antibiotics for preventing complications in children with measles". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 8: CD001477. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001477.pub4. PMID 23943263.
  9. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMID 25530442.